General Information

Capital: Ashgabat, (population 823,000). It is a modern city with white-painted buildings, and well-known for its parks and fountains.

Total Population: 5,810,921 in 2018.

Political system: Republic.

Head of State: HE Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow

Legislature: The parliament.

Official Language: Turkmen language. Russian is a second non-official language

Religion: Embraced by 89% of the population, Islam is the religion of the majority in the country. Most of the population are Sunni Muslims following the Hanafi denomination of Islam. There are some orthodox Christian minorities such as Russians, Ukrainians and Armenians, in addition to Azeris who are Shiite Muslims.

Local Currency: Manat. The us dollar is the only foreign currency allowed for circulation in Turkmenistan.

Geographical Location: Turkmenistan lies in Central Asia, bordered by Iran from the south, and is 488,100 square kilometers in area.

Terrain: Most of Turkmenistan's territories are covered by Garagum Desert, which is a vast expanse of sand dunes concentrating in the central region. Köýtendag mountain range extends along the southern borders with Iran.

Climate: The climate of Turkmenistan is desert and semi-tropical. Summers are hot and dry while winters are mild and dry. Annual rainfall  ratio is not stable.

History: Turkmenistan is one of Central Asia's five nations. Its history extends back to old ages – to  the empire of Parthia, which was established on the current Turkmen territories in the 3rd century BC, and to the history of other states and empires. Turkmenistan was conquered by Alexander of Macedon. The Islamic civilization reached the borders of Turkmenistan and came under the rule of Islamic caliphate in 7th century AD.

Turkmenistan fell under the control of successive empires including the Seljuks and the Mongols. In 1885 Turkmenistan was conquered by the Russian empire, and in 1924 became one of the republics of the Soviet Union.

Turkmenistan gained its independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, and became totally neutral in 1995, recognized by all the United Nations member states.